In our amplifier pre-stages, classic electronic valves and tubes ensure a unique, audiophile, rich and natural sound. Elaborate development work has enabled our engineers to preserve the charm of the valve and tube and, at the same time, produce a pure signal that meets the highest demands. All of our valves and tubes are burned in until their definitive sound characteristics have evolved. In an elaborate selection process, we then choose only those valves and tubes that still meet our stringent quality standards. Only these are ultimately used in our electronics products.